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What causes the oil spill at sea?

Views: 122     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-09-20      Origin: Site

With the strengthening of marine development and the continuous development of marine transportation industry, oil spills have occurred continuously at sea in recent years, which has aroused great concern. The weight of oil spilled into the sea around the world every year is about 10million tons. The occurrence of oil spills at sea not only causes huge waste of resources and economic losses, but also directly destroys the marine environment. Therefore, it is urgent to study the causes of oil spill accidents and the corresponding treatment measures.Cause analysis of oil spill accident at sea.There are many reasons leading to oil spills at sea, such as the complex and changeable marine climate environment; Operators, managers and operators do not attach great importance to their ideology at work; Insufficient preparation in knowledge, technology, facilities and equipment, etc. However, the fundamental reasons are as follows:Oil developers and transporters are reckless for their interests. The temptation of huge profits makes many manufacturers all over the world regardless of high risks such as possible oil spills and oil spills, and blindly pursue the high returns brought by this industry. In order to meet the oil demand of domestic and foreign markets. On the one hand, oil developers and transporters constantly explore and develop new oil fields, and continuously transport oil to all parts of the world. The final result of this development is that many exploration, development, transportation, oil refining, pipelines and other equipment are overloaded for a long time, and soon become aging and seriously damaged. Oil spills and oil spills are imminent. A similar case occurred on August 6, 2006. Due to the aging and serious corrosion of its oil pipeline, the Prudhoe Bay oil field, 30 miles away from the Arctic reserve, eventually led to crude oil leakage, causing serious consequences. On the other hand, in order to reduce transportation costs and maximize their own interests, oil carriers often carry out oil transportation under extremely unsafe conditions, which poses a great threat to ship safety and the marine environment. For example, in 1991, the "abt summer" tanker loaded with nearly 260000 tons of heavy oil spilled 80million gallons in the waters of Angola, and the main reason for the oil spill of the ship was overloading.The marine environment is complex and changeable. Many oil spills at sea are directly related to bad marine weather and complex marine geographical environment. On the one hand, with the rapid development of modern science and technology, although the shipping industry has advanced scientific and technological equipment and first-class navigation technology, there are still great limitations and deficiencies in the role that equipment and technology can play in coping with complex and volatile marine climate conditions. In November, 2002, the "prestige" tanker was hit by a strong storm off the coast of Spain, resulting in the hull fracture, and finally caused the "prestige" tanker to sink and a large amount of oil spill. On the other hand, the complex geographical environment at sea often leads to accidents such as ship grounding, resulting in a large number of oil spills. On February 15, 1996, the Liberian tanker "Queen of the sea" hit a reef in the waters near Wales, resulting in 65000 tons of crude oil leaking into the sea.Personnel management is not in place. Ship transportation management is a complex project, involving a wide range of personnel, mainly including crew, dock operators, company managers, shipyard staff and so on. In the process of large and complex ship transportation, any minor aspect of management is not in place, which may cause certain consequences and even serious losses. There are also many examples of oil spills at sea caused by inadequate management. On July 16, 2010, a Liberian oil tanker was unloading oil in Dalian Newport. At this time, the land oil pipeline suddenly exploded, causing a fire. At the same time, about 1500 crude oil flowed into the sea, and a large area of the sea was polluted, causing huge economic losses and ecological pollution. After the investigation of the accident, it was found that the direct cause was the illegal operation of the relevant staff, which exposed the loopholes in the personnel management of the relevant departments.Treatment of oil spill accident at sea

Once an oil spill accident occurs at sea, the primary task is to deal with it effectively. Therefore, correct coping strategies are very important.Prevent the spread of spilled oil. Once the oil spill occurs, the oil slick should be immediately contained to prevent the spread of the oil spill. Because the spilled oil will spread and drift rapidly under wind, flow and other natural factors, it is necessary to enclose and control the spilled oil as soon as possible. The commonly used tool to prevent the spread of spilled oil is the oil boom. There are three types of common oil containment booms: float type, inflatable type and air curtain type. It is the most common and effective equipment to prevent the spread of oil spills. Chemical condensation can also effectively prevent the spread of spilled oil. It uses a chemical agent that is more diffuse than oil, sprays it on the water surface to make it spread rapidly, squeezes and gathers the spilled oil, and the area of the oil film will be compressed in a large range, which can quickly prevent the diffusion of the spilled oil. It is a more efficient, feasible and scientific method.

Recovery of spilled oil. It is an ideal method to remove oil spills on the sea surface, which can not only avoid further harm to the environment, but also recover energy. The recovery methods include manual fishing, mechanical recovery and oil absorption material adsorption recovery. Oil spill recovery is an important part of emergency treatment and one of the most feasible methods to reduce losses. The work of oil spill recovery is difficult, so it is very important to equip professional operators. Only in this way can we achieve accurate, fast and effective recovery.

Direct disposal at sea. If it is difficult to recover, and it is too late or impossible to recover, chemical dispersants, combustion, sedimentation and biodegradation methods can be used to directly treat the oil spill at sea. Chemical dispersant is an emulsified and dispersed oil treatment agent composed of surfactant and a small amount of additives. Dispersants are generally used in open seas and open waters, and the effect is obvious, but oil dispersants will cause secondary pollution, so they should be approved by the local port authority before use, and products approved by the competent authority should be selected. Burning is to ignite the oil spill at sea, which is also one of the feasible methods to eliminate the oil spill at sea. This method should not be used as a last resort, because it will bring air pollution and may cause ship and land fires. Sedimentation is to sprinkle relatively dense lipophilic substances on the oil slick and make it sink into the sea together with the oil slick. This treatment will pollute seabed organisms, so it can only be used in specific sea areas. Generally, this method is prohibited. The last is biodegradation. Its biggest advantage is that it will not produce secondary pollution, and it is an ideal method to directly deal with offshore oil spills.Shoreline emergency protection. Due to the influence of complex conditions such as weather and sea conditions, although oil containment and recovery are carried out as much as possible, the threat of oil spill to the coastline is often unavoidable. At this time, emergency shoreline protection measures should be taken, including the use of multiple oil containment booms to intercept oil spill at sea, isolation and protection of available water intakes, inlets and sensitive areas.Shoreline emergency oil removal. If there is no time for containment and interception due to the large amount of oil spill, and the oil spill has affected the coastline, it is necessary to organize and take shoreline removal measures as soon as possible to restore the function of the polluted shoreline and reduce the deeper harm. Usually, the removal of shoreline mainly uses mechanical equipment and manual recovery. For shorelines that are generally rock, high pressure cleaning is usually carried out; For the beach shoreline, it should be noted that when removing the oil spill, do not remove too much of the original material from the beach; For wetland shorelines, such as sedimentary zones, mangroves and other areas that are very sensitive to oil spills, low-pressure seawater can be used for flushing, and a reasonable location can be selected to dig drainage ditches and pools as oil spill collection pools.Subsequent processing. After the oil spill, it is urgent to take a series of remedial and removal measures in time. However, not only that, after the crisis, the follow-up continuous aftermath treatment work must not be taken lightly. Such as the continuous detection and removal of oil spilled sea areas, the rescue of organisms in polluted sea areas, and the treatment of oily waste. Although the treatment of oily waste takes time, money and labor, it is an inevitable follow-up work in the treatment of offshore oil spills. Therefore, the oil containment boom is the best product to deal with and prevent oil spills at sea.

Here is the contene list:  

lBasic structure of oil containment boom.

lThe function of oil containment boom.

lStorage and maintenance of oil containment boom.

Basic structure of oil containment boom.

lthe equipment that can float stably on the water surface, which is used to prevent the spread of oil spills in the water area, reduce the area of oil spills, transfer oil spills and floating objects, and protect the water environment is called pvc oil fence. There are many kinds and forms of pvc silt curtain. But the basic structure is composed of floating body, skirt, tension belt, counterweight and joint.

 

lfloating body of Rubber oil boom: the part that provides buoyancy for the Rubberc oil fence. Its function is to use air or buoyant materials to provide buoyancy for the oil boom, so that the floating boom can float on the water. The floating body can be placed inside or outside the surface of the Rubber silt curtain.

 

lskirt of oil containment fence: refers to the continuous part of the floating boom below the floating body. Its function is to prevent or reduce the escape of oil from under the Rubberc oil fence.

 

loil containment tension belt: refers to long belt components (chains, belts) that can withstand the horizontal tension applied to the Rubber silt curtain. It is mainly used to bear the tension generated by wind, waves, currents and towing.

 

l counterweight of pvc oil boom: ballast that enables the pvc silt curtain to sag and improve the performance of the floating boom, which can make the oil boom in an ideal state in the water. Generally, it is made of steel or lead, or water is used as ballast.

 

lJoint of oil boom: it is permanently attached to the oil containment fence and is used to connect each oil boom or other auxiliary facilities.

The function of oil containment boom.

 

The functions of pvc oil fence can be summarized as follows: containment and concentration, oil spill diversion and prevention of potential oil spill.

 

lContainment and concentration of oil spills.

 

After an oil spill accident, the oil spill will rapidly spread and drift under the influence of tide, wind and other external factors, forming a large area of pollution. When oil spills occur in open waters, inshore waters or ports, pvc oil boom should be placed in time to control the spilled oil in diffusion in time. By dragging or narrowing the enclosure range through the opvc silt curtain, the oil film can be gathered to a smaller range for recycling, which can not only prevent the spread of oil spills, but also increase the thickness of oil film for recycling or other treatment.

 

lOverflow diversion.

 

After the oil spill accident, under the action of external factors, the oil spill will drift and spread at will. In order to facilitate the recovery operation or to dredge the oil spill flow to the designated place, especially in the area with turbulent river or near shore water flow, in order to effectively control the flow direction of the oil spill for recovery or to prevent the oil from entering the sensitive area, the oil containment fence is usually used to set an external defense according to the set angle. There are generally two situations for oil spill diversion. One is to arrange the floating boom for a long time, which is generally arranged at the water intake and power plant; Another situation is to set up oil containment booms near reefs, mainly when oil spills occur, temporarily set up Rubber oil boom according to the specific situation, so as to realize the diversion of oil spills and lead the oil spills to areas that are easy to recover or other areas of non sensitive resources.

 

lPrevent potential oil spills.

 

Preventing potential oil spills usually refers to placing Rubberc oil fence in advance for oil spill prevention and control according to the local water conditions where oil spills may occur or there is an oil spill risk. This can prevent the spread of oil spills when oil spills really occur, and take recovery measures to recover the oil spills in the containment in time. When a ship carries out oil loading and unloading operations at the wharf or oil lightering at the anchorage, it is usually necessary to arrange an pvc silt curtain in advance according to the specified requirements for setting control; Sometimes, a grounded or sunken ship should be properly enclosed and controlled according to the actual situation before it is salvaged.

Storage and maintenance of oil containment boom.

The storage and maintenance of the Rubberc oil fence is directly related to the rapid oil spill emergency response and the effective implementation of containment operations. In order to ensure rapid response, the storage place of the Rubber silt curtain should be as close to the wharf, operation site and sensitive resource protection area as possible, and ensure that the storage place of the oil containment fence is convenient for vehicles and ships to enter and leave. The oil fence stored outdoors should ensure that the storage place is well drained, pay attention to pests, moisture-proof, and avoid direct sunlight; When stored indoors, attention should also be paid to moisture resistance and good ventilation conditions, and necessary measures should be taken in advance to prevent pests (such as spreading rodenticide) according to the situation; The pvc silt curtain that need to be folded and stored should be placed on the spacer frame and no other items should be stacked on it to avoid the deformation of the oil containment boom caused by excessive pressure, and the stacked Rubber pvc silt curtain should be regularly inspected, and the original folding trace should be avoided when folding again; If it is necessary to store the foam on the reel, avoid distortion of the Rubberc oil fence during the winding process, and regularly unfold the wrapped oil boom, and then recycle it after inspection. The maintenance of the oil boom mainly refers to the daily maintenance and the maintenance after the recovery operation. The maintenance after the recycling operation mainly checks whether the floating boom is damaged, whether the accessories are complete or whether it needs to be replaced and repaired; Routine maintenance generally check whether the pvc oil fence is worn, broken, fiber aging, connector corrosion or damage caused by pulling and other loading and unloading reasons, and carry out necessary maintenance and replacement; The oil containment boom that has been placed in the water area for a long time should also be maintained regularly. Generally, the oil containment boom should be towed ashore regularly according to the specific situation to remove the marine organisms and other adhesion attached to the surface of the oil containment boom; No matter what kind of maintenance is carried out, it is necessary to make detailed records and arrange the inspection and maintenance items according to the records, so as to ensure that all the contents involved in the oil boom can be generally inspected and maintained within a certain period of time, so as to keep the oil boom in a good standby state at all times.

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